Assume you have just been hired as business manager of PizzaPalace, a pizza restaurant located adjacent to campus. The company’s EBIT was $500,000 last year, and since the university’s enrollment is capped, EBIT is expected to remain constant (in real terms) over time. Since no expansion capital will be required, PizzaPalace plans to pay out all earnings as dividends. The management group owns about 50 percent of the stock, and the stock is traded in the over-the-counter market.
The firm is currently financed with all equity; it has 100,000 shares outstanding; and P0 = $25 per share. When you took your MBA Corporate Finance course, your instructor stated that most firms’ owners would be financially better off if the firms used some debt. When you suggested this to your new boss, he encouraged you to pursue the idea. As a first step, assume that you obtained from the firm’s investment banker the following estimated costs of debt for the firm at different capital structures:
|% Financed With Debt||Rd|
If the company were to recapitalize, debt would be issued, and the funds received would be used to repurchase stock. PizzaPalace is in the 40 percent state-plus-federal corporate tax bracket, its beta is 1.0, the risk-free rate is 6 percent, and the market risk premium is 6 percent. Using the free cash flow valuation model, show the only avenues by which capital structure can affect value.
What is business risk? What factors influence a firm’s business risk?
Businsess risk is uncertainty about EBIT. Factors that influence business risk include: uncertainty about demand (unit sales); uncertainty about output prices; uncertainty about input costs; product and other types of liability; degree of operating leverage (DOL).
What is operating leverage, and how does it affect a firm’s business risk? Show the operating break-even point if a company has fixed costs of $200, a sales price of $15, and variable costs of $10.
Operating leverage is the change in EBIT
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